European Mudminnow

Umbra

The European Mudminnow (Umbra krameri) is a relict and endemic species from the pike family found in the Danube and Dniester River basins. The species is associated with stagnant or slow-flowing water, ponds, and lakes with muddy bottom and rich vegetation. It is able to survive in water with low oxygen concentrations, because apart from gills it uses an air bladder for breathing atmospheric oxygen. It can survive ten hours out of the water in moist areas. The European Mudminnow feeds on insect larvae, shrimps, molluscs, and sometimes small fish. It lives around five years and spawns from March to April. It can grow up to 17 cm and weigh up to 27 g. In Serbia, the European Mudminnow is a strictly protected species under the Code on Declaration and Protection of Strictly Protected Species and Protected Wild Species of Plants, Animals and Fungi Annex I (Official Gazette No. 5/10). It is also listed as a strictly protected species in Europe (Anex II of Habitats Directive) and on the IUCN Red List of Vulnerable Species.

 

Weatherfish

Cikov

The Weatherfish (Misgurnus fossilis) is a species from the loach family associated with stagnant or slow-flowing water, ponds, and lakes with muddy bottom and rich vegetation. It is able to survive in habitats with low oxygen concentrations, because apart from gills it uses skin and the digestive system for breathing. It is a nocturnal species, which burrows into mud during the day. It feeds on small invertebrates. It spawns in second or third year of life from March to July. It can grow up to 30 cm and weigh up to 150 g. The species called “Weatherfish” because it is very sensitive to weather changes and in the past it was used to predict foul weather. In Serbia, the Weatherfish is a strictly protected species under the Code on Declaration and Protection of Strictly Protected Species and Protected Wild Species of Plants, Animals and Fungi Annex I (Official Gazette No. 5/10). It is also listed as a strictly protected species in Europe (Resolution No. 6 of the Bern Convention and Anex II of Habitats Directive).

 

Tench

Linjak
The Tench (Tinca tinca) is a species from the carp family associated with stagnant or slow-flowing water. Throughout Europe and Asia it inhabits rivers, backwaters, oxbows, ponds and lakes with muddy bottoms and rich vegetation. It is able to survive in habitats with low oxygen concentrations and survive high summer and low winter temperatures by burying itself in mud. It feeds on small invertebrates, insect larvae, and when temperature drops to 4°C, falls into winter sleep. It lives around ten years and spawns in its third or fourth year from March to August. It can grow up to 70 cm and weigh up to 7 kg. In Serbia, the Tench is a strictly protected species under the Code on Declaration and Protection of Strictly Protected Species and Protected Wild Species of Plants, Animals and Fungi Annex I (Official Gazette No. 5/10).

 

 Crucian Carp

Zlatni karas
The Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius) is a species from the carp family associated with stagnant or slow-flowing water. It inhabits backwaters, oxbows, ponds and lakes with muddy bottoms and rich vegetation. It tolerates high summer temperatures and very low oxygen concentrations in summer and under ice cover. Also, it is able to survive in almost completely frozen water or almost-dry habitats by burying itself in mud and secreting fluids to maintain skin moisture. It feeds mostly at night on small invertebrates, plankton, and plant remnants. It lives around ten years and spawns in its third or fourth year from May to July. It can grow up to 45 cm and weigh up to 1.5 kg. In Serbia, the Crucian Carp is a strictly protected species under the Code on Declaration and Protection of Strictly Protected Species and Protected Wild Species of Plants, Animals and Fungi Annex I (Official Gazette No. 5/10).